Citizen Kane


Сумбурные заметки о преходящем

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Звездные музыканты против радиостанций: история Криса Андерсона
Citizen Kane
Фееричный пример типичного копирастического "луддизма" приводит Крис Андерсон в своей книжке Free, которую я сейчас с удовольствием читаю. Простите, что на английском, переводить сил нет, зато подчеркну особо примечательные места.

In the late 1930s, radio was emerging as a popular entertainment format, but also one that made a mess of the old ways of paying musicians.‘s American Decades describes the dilemma of the time: ― Most radio broadcasts were live, and the musicians and composers were paid for a single performance, but to musicians and composers payment for a single performance alone did not seem fair when that one performance was being received by millions of listeners. Had those millions been packed into one concert hall, the musicians‘ share of the receipts would presumably have been huge. Broadcasters argued that it was impossible to pay licensing fees based on how many listeners tuned in, because no one knew what that number was. But ASCAP, with its near-monopoly on the most popular artists, made the rules: It insisted on royalties of 3 to 5 percent of a station‘s gross advertising revenues in exchange for the right to play music. Worse, it threatened to raise that rate when the contract expired in 1940.

As the broadcasters and ASCAP were negotiating, radio stations started taking matters into their own hands, and cut the live performances out entirely. Recording technology was improving, and more and more stations began playing records, which were introduced by a studio announcer known as a disk jockey. The music labels responded by selling records stamped with ―NOT LICENSED FOR RADIO BROADCAST, but in 1940 the Supreme Court decided that radio stations could play any record that they had purchased.

So ASCAP convinced its most prominent members, such as Bing Crosby, to simply halt making new recordings. Faced with a shrinking pool of music to play and a potentially ruinous royalty requirement, the broadcasters struck back by organizing their own royalty agency, Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI). The upstart BMI, according to the American Decades account, ― quickly became a magnet for regional musicians, such as rhythm and blues or country and western artists, who were traditionally neglected by the New York–based ASCAP.

Because these less popular musicians wanted exposure more than money, they agreed to let the radio stations broadcast music for free. The business model of charging radio stations a fortune for the right to play music collapsed. Instead, radio was recognized as a prime marketing channel for artists, who would make their money from selling records and concerts. Although ASCAP challenged this in several lawsuits in the 1950s and 1960s, it never regained the power to charge high royalties to radio stations. Free-to-air radio plus nominal royalties for artists created the disk jockey era and, in turn, the Top 40 phenomenon.

Today these royalties are calculated based on a formula involving time, reach, and type of station, but are low enough for radio stations to prosper. The irony was complete.

Rather than undermining the music business, as ASCAP had feared, free helped the music industry grow huge and profitable. A free inferior version of the music (lower quality, unpredictable availability) turned out to be great marketing for a paid superior version, and the artists‘ revenues shifted from performance to record royalties.

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Верховный суд в итоге отменил свое решение 1940 года? И интересно, какие иски были у ASCAP в 50-х, к кому?

наверное, надо искать на‘s American Decades :)

в начале двухтысячных какой-то южно-славянский игрожурналист жаловался, что им приходится из кожи лезть, что б получить эксклюзивный материал по готовящимся релизам, в то время как им надо приплачивать, за публикацию контента

с интернетом такой кейс не пройдёт

В каком смысле не пройдет? Он уже проходит, просто законодательно не оформлен =)

Вот только прошли годы, и BMI стала ровно такой же копирастической организацией, и активно пробивается закон, который заставит радио платить отчисления. Мол интернет-радио же платит.

Есть кстати еще милейшая история, как издатели, столкнувшись с падением тиражей и рекламы, боролись с новостями на радио

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